CBD Research

For thousands of years, humans have maintained an extensive record of the medicinal properties from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. However, its legal status over the last 50 years has significantly hindered the application of advanced research practices. This has left us with a limited body of research and a lot of amazing stories showing the benefits of full spectrum CBD.

One thing is for sure, preclinical and clinical studies have and are strongly suggesting that CBD does have broad therapeutic properties. This has led to an explosion in scientific research and a race to know more about it. Below you will find some of this up-to-date research. Please check back as we will be updating this page regularly.

CBD Molecule
CBD Molecule
Later, check out our CBD guide for more basics.

Clinical Research

General Safety and Interest

  • CBD has been shown in various clinical studies to be well tolerated with a wide safety margin in human subjects. 
  • CBD is currently a medical research focus because it shows promise for treating anxiety and other brain disorders, but does not produce a 'high' like other parts of cannabis, has not been shown to be addictive, and is safe, with few or no side effects.

  • Chronic cannabis use does not produce serious cognitive disorders, as occurs with other substances like alcohol, but it can aggravate pre-existing mental disease. Therefore, treatment with cannabinoid receptor agonist with central actions may be contraindicated, or either rigorously controlled, in individuals predisposed to psychiatric disorders. No human deaths associated to cannabis use have been reported...
    The Instituto de Neurociencieas de Alicante

  • CBD does exhibit immunosuppressive properties. In particular, CBD decreased IL-8 and the chemokines MIP-1α and MIP-1β from a human B cell line. CBD has also been shown to suppress collagen-induced arthritis, and carrageenan-induced inflammation. Importantly, CBD has been efficacious in combination with THC in treating neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease.
    Center for Integrative Toxicology and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University

Lethal Dose Comparisons (LD50)

Here are some interesting comparisons to common medicines and other illicit substances.

LD50 = is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen. The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population. These examples are based on a 150lb at once.

Substance LD50 Linked Deaths
CBD 31,800mg or 1,906 1mL droppers of 500mg 0, never
THC 56,000mg or 1700 joints 0, never
Aspirin 13,600mg or 68 pills 3000 in 2017
Alcohol 17oz of grain alcohol (about 15 shots) 80K+ related deaths per year
Fentanyl 80mg or a pinch of salt 20K+ overdose deaths in 2017
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) 10,000mg or 20x 500mg pills 450 per year as of 2017
Cocaine 1200mg or 20 lines 14K+ in 2017
OxyContin, Vicodin, and Percocet 80-100mg 19K+ in 2016
Source: https://www.drugabuse.gov | https://www.cdc.gov



  • Researchers found that treatment with 80 mg/kg of cannabidiol — but not smaller doses of 40 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg — reduced the motivation to consume methamphetamine in rats trained to self-administer the addictive stimulant.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology

  • Using a strategy of indirectly regulating neural systems to modulate opioid-related behavior, rodent studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD) specifically inhibit cue-induced heroin-seeking behavior.   https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01605539

  • CBD reduced the effects of drug seeking without tolerance, sedative effects, or interference with normal motivated behavior.  
    The Scripps Research Institute

  • A pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study showed those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~ 40% during treatment.
    University College London

  • Evidence from animal models and clinical studies suggests that the negative emotion caused by PTSD symptoms intensifies craving for alcohol during alcohol withdrawal, perpetuating the addictive cycle of alcohol use disorder (AUD); further, evidence shows that the brain circuits underlying negative emotion and addiction are linked in a forebrain area called the extended amygdala, which provides a neuropharmacological target to simultaneously treat both negative emotion and alcohol addiction in individuals with AUD and PTSD. CBD is known to inhibit brain activity in the extended amygdala, leading to reduced anxiety in both animal models and humans. CBD also reduces addictive alcohol seeking in animal models.


  • Findings suggest that CBD has beneficial effects in patients with schizophrenia. As CBD's effects do not appear to depend on dopamine receptor antagonism, this agent may represent a new class of treatment for the disorder.
    American Psychiatric Association
  • Several studies indicate that the human endogenous cannabinoid system is significantly involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and that cannabidiol is effective in treating acute psychotic symptoms of schizophrenic patients. 
    University of Cologne
  • Cannabidiol has been shown to exert antipsychotic effects similar to those of one of the most effective modern antipsychotics, amisulpride, but it induced significantly less side effects.

  • There is evidence that CB1 antagonists such as SR141716 and cannabidiol have antipsychotic effects comparable to those of classic neuroleptic drugs

Epilepsy and Seizures

Pain Management

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, having the same therapeutic effects than THC (analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and others), but with a different pharmacologic profile. Studies have been made with cannabidiol derivatives developed to inhibit peripheral pain responses and inflammation after binding to cannabinoid receptors.
    The Instituto de Neurociencieas de Alicante

  • Fifteen of the 18 randomized controlled trials demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoids as compared to placebo.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Goce Delcev University

  • Evidence to suggest that glycinergic cannabinoids are ideal therapeutic agents in the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
  • CBD significantly reduces inflammation in mice and rats.
    Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and Chemical Biological Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health

  • Cannabidiol and O-1602 showed anti-inflammatory effects in mice with AP and improved the expression of GPR55 in the pancreatic tissue as well.
    Tongji University School of Medicine

Headaches / Migraines

  • A study to describe the effects of medical marijuana on the monthly frequency of migraine headache showed  the frequency of migraine headache was decreased.
    University of Colorado 

Gastrointestinal tract

  • The endocannabinoid system is ubiquitously expressed throughout the rodent and human body and serves a multitude of physiological roles, including the regulation of gastrointestinal function. Activating cannabinoid receptors within the gut inhibits peristalsis and gastric acid secretion and enhances food intake.
    University of California, Riverside


Pet Research


Educational Videos on the Science of CBD